mycotoxin Analyses

Mycotoxin Analysis
Mycotoxin Analysis

Mycotoxins are secondary metabolic products produced by fungi and molds, which have poisoning effects on humans and animals, even in very small amounts, particularly in vertebrates. As a result of scientific studies, it has been determined that more than 250 fungus species to date produce mycotoxins over 300. Mycotoxin is present in the vicinity of 25, whose chemical structures are fully determined. The poisoning properties of mycotoxins are different depending on the body resistances and the doses taken. However, in some cases they are also found to be carcinogenic.

Detection of such contamination in trace amounts in foodstuffs is only possible with analysis methods that provide very sensitive and precise results. Numerous methods have been developed to identify and differentiate mycotoxins in different foodstuffs.

Mushroom and mold species grow rapidly and produce mycotoxins due to the increase in temperature and humidity in foods, grains and feeds. Mycotoxins, also known as mold poison, produce a toxin that is harmful to health. Aflatoxin is the most important of these. Aflatoxins are a very strong poison and carcinogenic substance. Aflatoxin B1 is the most poisonous, the most effective cancer and the gene structure.

The maximum permissible Aflatoxin B1 in European Union countries is 5 ppb in milliliters, 10 ppb in animal feed and 0,5 ppb in milk. In our country, the highest aflatoxin B1 value allowed for certain foodstuffs was determined as 5 ppb and total aflatoxin (B1 + B2 + G1 + G2) values ​​were determined as 10 ppb.

Today, after the discovery of aflatoxins, studies have focused on mycotoxin analysis methods. There are some problems in detecting mycotoxins in food, feed or seeds. Once the chemical structure of mycotoxins is different from each other. Each has different physical and chemical properties. As such, different methods need to be developed for each mycotoxin group. In addition, very effective processes are needed to isolate trace amounts of mycotoxin in food, feed or seed. Also, for each mycotoxin group, different extraction processes are required. Another difficulty is that the mycotoxins are dispersed irregularly in the products. This naturally affects the accuracy and precision of the analyzes and requires a large number of tests.

Despite these difficulties, new methods are being developed including accurate and accurate measurements of mycotoxins.

The main tests and analyzes performed within the scope of mycotoxin analyzes are as follows:

  • Multiple mycotoxin analysis (LC-MS / MS)
  • Determination of aflatoxin B1 and total aflatoxin (B1 + B2 + G1 + G2) (HPLC and LC-MS / MS)
  • Determination of aflatoxin M1 (HPLC and LC-MS / MS)
  • Determination of deoxynivalenol (DON) and vomitoxin (HPLC and LC-MS / MS)
  • Determination of diacetoxysirperol (diacetoxyscirpenol) (HPLC and LC-MS / MS)
  • Determination of fumonisin (B1 + B2) (HPLC and LC-MS / MS)
  • Determination of HT-2 toxin (HPLC and LC-MS / MS)
  • Determination of Ochratoxin A (OTA) (HPLC and LC-MS / MS)
  • Determination of ochratoxin B (HPLC and LC-MS / MS)
  • Determination of patulin (HPLC and LC-MS / MS)
  • Determination of citrine (HPLC and LC-MS / MS)
  • Determination of toxic algae
  • Determination of T-2 toxin (HPLC and LC-MS / MS)
  • Determination of zearalenone (HPLC and LC-MS / MS)

The most discussed and researched mycotoxins known to be toxic to human health are aflatoxins. Aflatoxins are a group of poisonous molds produced by mold fungi. The first detection was in the UK in 1960. Peanuts brought from the United States and used to feed turkeys soon killed more than one thousand 100 turkeys. When the subject was investigated, it was understood that the deaths were caused by the mycotoxins produced by mold fungi in peanuts.

Fast, high quality and reliable mycotoxin analyzes are performed in advanced laboratories. These analyzes are based on standards published by domestic and foreign organizations.