Fat acids composition determination

Determination of Fatty Acid Composition
Determination of Fatty Acid Composition

Carbohydrates, proteins and fats are the most important sources of energy for all living organisms to survive. Oils are essential compounds that play an important role in the nutrition of humans and animals. Oils provide the highest energy per unit weight and are suitable for storing energy. Fats and oils are compounds on which triglycerides of glycerol and fatty acids are essential. The physical and chemical properties of oils are determined by the composition of fatty acids contained in their content.

Glycerol, one of the constituents of oil, is present in the same manner in all oil plants. However, fatty acids, which are other constituents of oil, are present in a different composition in each oil-extracted plant. The usage areas of the oil are determined depending on the fatty acids composition they contain. Fatty acids are a straight hydrocarbon chain having a carboxyl group in structure. Fatty acids are distinguished by characteristics such as the number of carbon in the hydrocarbon chain, the presence of a double bond between carbon atoms, and the location and number of any double bonds.

Fatty acids found in natural oils are generally two types, saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. Fatty acids consisting of a single double bond and which are generally solid at room temperature are saturated fatty acids, and fats rich in this aspect are called saturated fats. Fatty acids containing more than one double bond are called polyunsaturated fatty acids.

The fatty acids composition is not stable. It generally varies depending on ecological, genetic, morphological, physiological and cultural factors.

The Turkish Food Codex issued by the Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock is attached to the Plant Name Oils Communiqué (Communiqué No: 2012 / 29), the fatty acid composition is given on the basis of various vegetable oils as a percentage of total fatty acids (Annex 1).

The authorized laboratories carry out the determination of fatty acid composition within the scope of chemical food analysis. During these analyzes, the relevant legal regulations and the standards issued by national and international organizations are followed.