biotoxins Analyses

Biotoxin Analysis
Biotoxin Analysis

Cellular microscopic algae, which come to life in the seas and fresh waters, usually multiply during the sudden warming process of water between the beginning of spring and the end of autumn and cause the color change of the water due to the pigment substances in their structures. This phenomenon is commonly called Red-Tide. To date, around one thousand 4 microalgae species have been identified, of which 200 is harmful. Among them, the 80 species has the ability to produce poison. These small organisms have very negative effects on human health and the environment. The toxins they produce are transported through the food chain, damaging the ecosystem.

Among algae, especially cyanobacteria (blue green algae) and pyrrophyta (dinoflagellates) species produce toxic compounds for humans and other living things. These toxins are passed on to humans through consumption of aquatic products and lead to poisoning. The most important of these species are:

  • Paralytic Shellfish Poison (PSP)
  • Diarrhetic Shellfish Poison (DSP)
  • Amnesic Shellfish Poison (ASP)
  • Neurotoxic Shellfish Poison (NSP)

PSPs cause poisoning. The cause of poisoning is saxitoxin.

DSPs have diarrhea. The reason for this is ocaic acid with toxin C38 fatty acid.

ASPs cause memory loss. This is caused by domoic acid.

NSPs affect the nervous system. This is due to brevetoxin compound.

Scientists and government agencies are working on harmful algal reproduction to identify toxic and biotoxin events that harm humans and the environment. Harmful algae reproduction is in fact immediately recognized by the visible discoloration of water, the formation of foam in the water, the death of fish, and the various discomforts that occur in humans consuming these seafood.

Shellfish are consumed almost everywhere in the world and poisoning problems are experienced from time to time. These intoxications are caused by toxins formed by dinoflagellata, one of the single-celled marine algae. Marine organisms that feed on this type of algae collect and transport toxins in their bodies and transfer them to people who consume them.

In recent years, there has been an increase in the incidence of intoxication in humans due to the consumption of poisonous mussels and fish. In order to prevent these events, some of which are fatal, it is necessary to prevent harmful algae growth. In this respect, there is a need for laboratories equipped with technologically equipped and trained staff.

The basic tests and analyzes performed within the scope of biotoxin analyzes are as follows:

  • Amnesic Shellfish Poison Group (ASP) (Invivo)
  • Diarrhetic Shellfish Poison Group (DSP) (Invivo)
  • Paralytic Shellfish Poison Group (PSP) (Invivo)
  • Amnesic Shellfish Poison Group (ASP) (LC-MS / MS) Domoic Acid (DA-f)
  • Diarrhetic Shellfish Poison Group (DSP) AZAs (LC-MS / MS)
    • Diarrhetic Shellfish Poison Group (DSP) - Azaspiric Acid 1 (AZA-1)
    • Diarrhetic Shellfish Poison Group (DSP) - Azaspiric Acid 2 (AZA-2)
    • Diarrhetic Shellfish Poison Group (DSP) - Azaspiric Acid 3 (AZA-3)
  • Diarrhetic Shellfish Poison Group (DSP) Octadaic Acid and DTXs (LC-MS / MS)
    • Diarrhetic Shellfish Poison Group (DSP) - Okadaic Acid
    • Diarrhetic Shellfish Poison Group (DSP) - Dinophysis Toxin1 (DTX-1)
    • Diarrhetic Shellfish Poison Group (DSP) - Dinophysis Toxin2 (DTX-2)
  • Diarrhetic Shellfish Poison Group (DSP) Pectonotoxins, PTXs and Neutral Toxins) (LC-MS / MS)
  • Diarrhetic Shellfish Poison Group (DSP) YTXs (Sulfated Compounds) (LC-MS / MS)
    • Diarrhetic Shellfish Poison Group (DSP) - Yesso Toxin (YTX)
    • Diarrhetic Shellfish Poison Group (DSP) - Homo Yesso Toxin (hYTX)
    • Paralytic Shellfish Poison Group (PSP) (LC-MS / MS)
    • Paralytic Shellfish Poison Group (PSP) - Gonyatoxin (GTX)
    • Paralytic Shellfish Poison Group (PSP) - Neosaxitoxin (NEO)
    • Paralytic Shellfish Poison Group (PSP) - Saxitoxin (STX)

Fast, high quality and reliable biotoxin analyzes are performed in advanced laboratories. These analyzes are based on standards and test methods published by domestic and foreign organizations.